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Microscopic Pedestrian Flow Characteristics:
Development of an Image Processing Data Collection and Simulation Model

© copy right 2003 by Kardi Teknomo. All right reserved.

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Dissertation Abstract

Microscopic pedestrian studies consider detailed interaction of pedestrians to control their movement in pedestrian traffic flow. The tools to collect the microscopic data and to analyze microscopic pedestrian flow are still very much in its infancy. The microscopic pedestrian flow characteristics need to be understood. Manual, semi manual and automatic image processing data collection systems were developed. It was found that the microscopic speed resemble a normal distribution with a mean of 1.38 m/second and standard deviation of 0.37 m/second. The acceleration distribution also bears a resemblance to the normal distribution with an average of 0.68 m/ square second.

A physical based microscopic pedestrian simulation model was also developed. Both Microscopic Video Data Collection and Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model generate a database called TXY database. The formulations of the flow performance or microscopic pedestrian characteristics are explained. Sensitivity of the simulation and relationship between the flow performances are described. Validation of the simulation using real world data is then explained through the comparison between average instantaneous speed distributions of the real world data with the result of the simulations.

The simulation model is then applied for some experiments on a hypothetical situation. The main purposes are to gain more understanding of pedestrian behavior in one way and two way situations, to know the behavior of the system if the number of elderly pedestrian increases and to evaluate a policy of lane-like segregation toward pedestrian crossing and inspects the performance of the crossing. It was revealed that the microscopic pedestrian studies have been successfully applied to give more understanding to the behavior of microscopic pedestrians flow, predict the theoretical and practical situation and evaluate some design policies before its implementation.

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PARKING BEHAVIOR IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT A STUDY CASE OF SURABAYA, INDONESIA

 

Abstract : The lack of information about parkers' behavior in choosing a parking location in the Central Business District makes it difficult to develop an effective parking policy. The purpose of this study is to understand parkersí behavior in choosing a parking location in the CBD of Surabaya. Three types of parking location choice models were developed, namely Parking Demand Regression Models, Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multinomial Logit Models. The parkersí behavior in choosing a parking location is mainly influenced by the availability of parking spaces, trip purpose, search & queue time, walking time, parking fee, security, and comfortability.

 

Source: Teknomo, Kardi, and Kazunori Hokao, Parking Behavior in Central Business District- A Case Study of Surabaya, Indonesia, EASTS Journal, Vol. 2, 1997.

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SIMULATION OF TOLL COLLECTION SYSTEM IN
SURABAYA-GEMPOL TOLLWAY

Abstract: Toll collection can have an open or closed system. In an open system, the users pay the toll in either entrance or exit gate, while in a closed system, they take a ticket in the entrance gate and pay the toll in the exit gate. The structure of open and closed toll collection systems can be simulated to get optimum locations that would generate the highest revenue. Secondary data from the Tollway Authority was used to construct an OD matrix. Elasticity of demand by changing the price was used to model the reduced demand due to change in structure of the toll collection. Several scenarios of structure changes were proposed, simulated and evaluated. Evaluation concludes that two open systems were the best scenarios for the tollway and improvement in the toll collection of about 8% compared with the existing condition.

Source: Teknomo, Kardi and Gloria P. Gerilla, Simulation of Toll Collection System in Surabaya-Gempol Toll way, EASTS Journal, Vol. 3, no 6 1999.

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Teknomo, Kardi, Yasushi Takeyama And Hajime Inamura, Tracking System to Automate Data Collection of Microscopic Pedestrian Traffic Flow, Proceeding of The 4th Eastern Asia Society For Transportation Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. 11-25, Oct. 2001.

TRACKING SYSTEM TO AUTOMATE DATA COLLECTION OF MICROSCOPIC PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC FLOW

Kardi Teknomo, Yasushi Takeyama, Hajime Inamura, Tohoku University, Japan

Abstract: To deal with many pedestrian data, automatic data collection is needed. This paper describes how to automate the microscopic pedestrian flow data collection from video files. The study is restricted only to pedestrians without considering vehicular - pedestrian interaction. Pedestrian tracking system consists of three sub-systems, which calculates the image processing, object tracking and traffic flow variables. The system receives input of stacks of images and parameters. The first sub-system performs Image Processing analysis while the second sub-system carries out the tracking of pedestrians by matching the features and tracing the pedestrian numbers frame by frame. The last sub-system deals with a NTXY database to calculate the pedestrian traffic-flow characteristic such as flow rate, speed and area module. Comparison with manual data collection method confirmed that the procedures described have significant potential to automate the data collection of both microscopic and macroscopic pedestrian flow variables.

Key Words: Microscopic, Pedestrian, Image Processing, Automation, Tracking

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Teknomo, Kardi, Yasushi Takeyama and Hajime Inamura, Measuring Microscopic Flow Performance for Pedestrians, Proceeding of the 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul, Korea, July 2001.

MEASURING MICROSCOPIC FLOW PERFORMANCE
FOR PEDESTRIANS

Kardi Teknomo, Yasushi Takeyama, Hajime Inamura, Tohoku University, Japan

Abstract: A paradigm to improve the quality of pedestrian movement by considering their interactions in the microscopic level is introduced. By this approach, design of pedestrian facilities is not merely space allocation but it can also utilize other form of flow controls in space, time and direction. Although microscopic pedestrian analysis exists, the microscopic pedestrian data collection has not been developed. Once such microscopic data is collected, another problem on how to measure the flow performance from the microscopic data collection arises. This paper describes how data reduction can be made to obtain pedestrian flow performances. The automation of microscopic pedestrian data from video files is also explained. The video data is converted into numbers as a NTXY database. Following this conversion, the rest of the process can be done using computers that reduce the processing cost and speed, and improve accuracy. The data reduction of NTXY database into well-established traffic flow variables and some prominent flow performance was formulated. It was confirmed that the procedures described have significant potential to automate measurement of both microscopic and macroscopic pedestrian flow performances.

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