By Kardi Teknomo, PhD .

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Difference Equation or discrete dynamical system especially is a very fascinating subject because we can derive many complex behavior based on simple formulation. It is easy to understand and has many applications. This tutorial is to introduce to a simple difference equation (with emphasize to the affine dynamical system), especially the three important subjects: Solution of the difference equation and its behavior, equilibrium or critical value and stability. Click the topics below to start.

## Contents

What is Dynamical System?

What is Linear System?

What is Difference Equations?

Identical Difference Equations

Index and Initial Value Agreement

Order of Difference Equation

Solution to Difference Equation

Equilibrium of Difference Equation

Stability and Phase Diagram

Affine Difference Equation

10 Possible types of solutions (How does it come out into only 10 possible type of solutions?)

Table of Possible Solutions

Equilibrium

Stability

Numerical Example

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See Also
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:
Recursive Statistics
,
System Dynamic